The head of the Mormon Church will not appear in a British court over claims some of its teachings amount to fraud, a judge has ruled.
A former follower brought a private prosecution against Thomas Monson, president of the US-based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Tom Phillips claimed Mr Monson breached the Fraud Act by seeking money using "untrue or misleading" statements.
But Senior District Judge Howard Riddle called it an "abuse" of court process.
Malcolm Adcock, the Mormon Church's assistant director for public affairs in Europe, said: "This case was a misuse of the legal system and should never have been brought."
Speaking at Westminster Magistrates' Court, the judge said: "I am satisfied that the process of the court is being manipulated to provide a high-profile forum to attack the religious beliefs of others."
The summons alleged that, between February 2008 and December 2013, Mr Monson had induced two men to pay an "annual tithe" based on teachings which were untrue.
These included teachings maintaining:
there were no deaths on Earth before 6,000 years ago
all humans are descended from two people who lived approximately 6,000 years ago
Joseph Smith translated the Book Of Mormon from ancient gold plates and it is historically accurate
Native Americans are descended from Israelites who left Jerusalem in 600BC
The summons, signed by District Judge Elizabeth Roscoe, had ordered Mr Monson to appear at Westminster and threatened arrest if he did not.
But Judge Riddle ruled the threat of arrest was "wrong" and should not have been made.
He described the attempted prosecution as "tenuous", with no chance of ever making it to trial even if Mr Monson attended.
"To convict, a jury would need to be sure that the religious teachings of the Mormon Church are untrue or misleading," he said.
"No judge in a secular court in England and Wales would allow that issue to be put to a jury."
BBC religious affairs correspondent Robert Pigott said a court decision to pursue the case would have had "awkward implications" for other religions.
He said a "ruling against the literal truth of Adam and Eve" could have been seen as the "start of a slippery slope" of legal challenges to religious beliefs.
Neither Mr Phillips nor Mr Monson was in court for the hearing.